Fungal Infection is also known as Dermatophytosis, fungus or fungal infection. It is a common contagious disease means it is spread by direct contact, and it is caused by fungi called as dermatophytes.
Dermatophytes are a group of organisms that are able to break down the skin tissues such hair, nails. These fungi reside in the soil and are involved in decomposition. These can also infect living organisms. Some of these can be transmitted from person to person, some are adapted to animals. Some species normally live in the environment, but they live as a parasites. Some of these are transmitted from animals to people. These infections are mostly self, limited, but sometimes it can lead to serious consequence.Dermatophytosis is mainly caused by Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton. Among these members of Micorpsorum and Trichophyton cause illness in both humans and animals. E. Floccosum is the only species of Epidermophyton known to cause disease, and it usually affects only people.
These dermatophytes grow best in warm and humid environments and are, therefore, more common tropical and subtropical regions.
People and animals become infected by dermatophytes after contact with spores. Initially, they infects a growing hair of the skin.
Symptoms of Fungal infections
Symptoms vary, depending on the infection organism, affected tissues and area of body.
In unhaired skin, the skin lesions are usually characterized by redness, inflammation that is more severe at the edges, blister formation is also seen. The central area is clear. This is called ringworm infection.
In haired areas, the hairs become brittle and areas of loss of hair can also be seen.
In humans, deromatophytoses are referred to as “tinea” infections, and are named according to the area of the body involved.
It is seen in children with infection of the hair and scalp. The major organisms involved in this condition vary with geographic area. Some of the varieties are – T. violaceum, M. audouinii, T. schoenleinii, T. megninii, T. soudanense. This infection is characterized by spreading, scaly, irregular or well – marked areas of redness, and areas of hair loss. Some of these infection causes dry areas of loss of hair with minimal inflammation. Sometimes it is a chronic infection characterized by yellow, cup shaped eruptions around the hairs.
This type of infection occurs on the trunk, hands and feet. Infections often spread to the neck and wrists of adults in contact with infected children. This infection is caused by T.rubrum and E.floccosum, which infect the skin but not the hair. One or more lesions may be present in this condition. These lesions are usually pink to red or scaly, and annular slightly raised, with sharp margin, and central clearing. Sometimes pus can also be seen.
Tinea faciei and tinea barbae
This infection occurs on the face. These infections are often spread to humans from pets. Tinea barbae is an infection of the hairs and skin the beard and moustache area, and is usually seen in men. Some of the organisms can enter to hair and hair follicles, while others are limited to the skin. The lesions of this may include scaling, pus filled along redness. Caused by T. rubrum, T.verrucosum, T. mentagrophytes.
Tinea faciei is seen on the non-bearded parts of the face. It can be caused by various organisms like T. rubrum, T.tonsurans, T.schoenleinii. The lesions are usually pus filled, with great itching and burning, which may become worse after exposure to sunlight. While some lesions may resemble those of tinea corporis, others have little or no scaling or lack raised edges. This disease can often confused with other skin diseases that affect the face.
This is an acute to chronic infection of the groin and adjacent areas, usually caused by T.rubrum. T.mentagrophytes. E.floccosum. The symptoms include burning, itching, and redness with scales, raised, sharply demarcated borders and central clearing. Pus filled lesions are also seen. Hyperpigmentation (means darkening of skin) is common in the central region as the lesion progresses.
This infection is caused by T.rubrum, T.mentagrophytes, and E.floccosum. Infection between in digits of feet is seen which is called tinea pedis(commonly called athlete’s foot) is an infection of the foot, characterized either by dryness, fissures and scales or white, moist lesions in some or all of the spaces between the toes. Another type is characterised by scaling of the soles with inflammation and dryness. Sometimes a third form of this infection is characterized by redness, pus filled lesions seen on the soles of the feet.
Tinea manuum is seen in one hand, or at times both hands is involved. In this palms become dry scaly and redness is seen. Pus filled lesions is seen.
It is infection of nails. It is characterized by thickened, opaque, discoloured, broken and deformed nails. The nail may be separated from the nail bed. Toenails are affected more often than fingernails.
Infection of immuno suppressed individuals – Patient with HIV or organ transplant recipients can present with lesions.
Diagnosis is made after taking the following:
- Physical examination, microscopic examination of scrapings and hairs from the lesions
- Fungal culture
- Wood’s lamp examination.
Protection from ringworm infection
- Maintain good hygiene habits
- Wash your hands frequently, especially after contact with any animal
- Clean and disinfect areas where pets lives.
Remedies for Fungal Infection
It is very useful remedy for any skin disease especially in ringworm. It is associated with eczema of eyelids. Glands of neck enlarged and tender. It can be given successfully in the treatment of tuberculosis. It is especially indicated for old people, with disease of lungs. All the complaints are worse, in night early morning, and cold air.
Potency Dosage: 30 potency, given 3 times a day, for a week.
2- Natrum Mur
Skin in this remedy is often greasy, oily, especially on hairy parts. Patient has dry eruptions, especially on the margin of the hairy scalp and bends of joints. It is important remedy for urticaria where there is intense and burn. Eruptions in the bends of limbs, margin of scalp, behind ears. It is also helpful in treatment of eczema, where lesions are raw, red and inflamed. Worse by eating salt. This remedy mainly affects hair follicles.
Worse by warm room, lying down, around 10a.m, mental exertion, heat talking.
Better by open air, clod bathing, going without regular meals.
Potency Dosage – 30 three doses a day for three days
Skin in this remedy itches, becomes dry, shrunken and pale. There is pus filled lesions. It is very useful in early stages of skin disease. This remedy has tendency for boils. There is swelling of glands. There is redness in lesions. Patient has a tendency of warts and moles.
Worse from getting wet, when it rains, exposure to damp, cold weather, night, exposure, motion, right side.
Better by warmth, dry weather, rest.
Potency Dosage – 30 two doses a day for three days.
There is itching, which is not relieved by scratching, worse in bends of elbows and knees. It is good remedy for herpetic eruption on lips, around the mouth and nose. Ringworm like eruption every spring. Urticaria ongoing in open air, better in a warm room. Foots sweat, worse on toes, intolerable odour. There is offensive odour of skin.
Worse by forenoons, and evenings, washing, laundry work, dampness, left side, after sweat, cold air, before a thunderstorm.
Better by exercise, pressure, warmth of bed, hot applications, drawing limbs up, after bathing, after sleep.
Potency Dosage – 200 three doses a day for five days
This remedy is associated with itching of hands and feet. There is ringworm like eruptions in body. There is offensive odours from affected part. Stinging in the skin. Fetid exhalations, There is offensive foot sweat. Eczema, behind the ears. There is circular patches of eczema.
Worse, while at rest at night, cold weather, from friction, coughing, laughing, lying on painful side, touch.
Potency Dosage – 30 three doses a day for two days
Skin is very healthy. There is all type polyp, tubercles, warts on skin. Freckles and blotches. There is perspiration which is sweetish and strong. Dry skin with brown spots. There is tearing pain in glands. There is glandular enlargement. Nails cripples, brittle and soft. Eruption only on covered parts. Worse after scratching. Very sensitive to touch. There is coldness of one side. There is brown spots on hands and arms.
Worse – at night, from heat of bed, at 3a.m and 3 p.m., from cold air, damp air, after breakfast, fat, coffee, after vaccination. Better left side, while drawing up a limb.
Potency Dosage – 200 three doses a day for two days.